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Actions (also known as Conversion)

This is a completed activity that is defined as important to your client’s campaign and could include a land on a web page, start a quote, or watch a video for example

Ad Exchange

The Ad Exchange is the digital marketplace that connects the buy and sell sides. 

Ad Fraud

It is the practice of fraudulently representing online traffic, impressions, clicks, conversion or data events in order to generate revenue.  Also referred to as Invalid Traffic (IVT).

Ad Network

Provide an outsourced sales capability for publishers and a means to aggregate inventory and audiences from numerous sources in a single buying opportunity for media buyers. Ad networks may provide technologies to enhance value to both publishers and advertisers, including unique targeting capabilities, creative generation, and optimization.

Ad Position

Ranking in which your ad appears, often reported as an average

Ad Rank

A Google value that's used to determine your ad position, whether your ads will show against a query and the price you pay. Calculated using your bid amount, and your Quality Score and the expected impact of extensions and other ad formats

Ad Serving

The technology and service that places (serves) Ads on websites/applications and collects and reports performance data.

Ad Tag

An ad tag is a snippet of code on a website that communicates with ad servers to make the correct digital ad appear on a webpage or in an app

Ad Tracking

Method for recording campaign delivery metrics between adservers

Ad Trafficking

The process of setting up ads in the adserver so that when an ad request is made to the ad server the correct ad will be returned and played.

Ad Transfers

The successful display of an advertiser's website after the user clicked on an ad. When a user clicks on an advertisement, a click-through is recorded and re-directs or "transfers" the user's browser to an advertiser's website. If the user successfully displays the advertiser's website, an ad transfer is recorded.

Addressable TV

Technology that lets you show different ads to different audience segments watching the same TV program on internet protocol TV (IPTV) and set top boxes. Those segments could be defined by behavioral, demographic, and geographic factors from 1st, 2nd, or 3rd party data sets.


A technology platform used to facilitate the delivery of online advertising to the end user. An adserver can be used to apply sophisticated targeting techniques to improve effectiveness of the advertising.


An advertisement in the form of editorial content, usually within print environments.


Google’s online ad program where you can research, set up and manage SEM campaigns, and track and report on performance


A website acting as a virtual sales force for an advertiser, typically on a commission basis.

Agency Commission

Agency commission, also known as Settlement Discount, is a discount offered by some media vendors to agency businesses for on time payment, customarily 10%.  


A set of rules used by computers to solve problems. Search engines use algorithms to determine the rankings on a search page. 

ALT Text

A word or phrase that describes the content of an image. This is displayed if an image is not loaded, and it also helps search engines to index a page. 


The process and practice of drawing attention to your content so more people visit your site, read your posts, share your content, link to it, ect. 

Anchor Text

The clickable text that forms part of a hyperlink. For example, if clicking 'photo gallery' on a webpage takes you to '', then 'photo gallery' is the anchor text. 

ATD (Agency Trading Desk)

An ATD is developed within a 'traditional' agency and helps manage programmatic media acquired through a bidding system that intends to seek a certain audience. ATDs are set up to benefit a particular advertising agency and their clients. They allow purchases of media in real-time rather than before its needed. 


The process of connecting an ad event to a consumer action or desired response.  Advertisers work with attribution modelling to quantify the contribution of various media activity to the performance of a campaign.


For each ad impression, ad auction system selects the best ads to run based on the ads' maximum bids and ad performance. All ads on Facebook compete against each other in this process, and the ads that the system determines are most likely to be successful will win the auction.

Audience Targeting

A specific audience, based on their demographics, interests, life stage, or most likely, a combination of these.  This can be measured through Nielsen’s digital campaign ratings system.

Audience Verification

An auditing service that allows advertisers to control that ads are actually served to the intended targeted profile of audience 

Audio On

Detection that audio content of an ad was played.  This could be audio for an audio specific ad or audio for a video ad.

Autoplay video

A video ad or an ad linked with video content that initiates ‘‘play’’ without user interaction or without an explicit action to start the video (essentially automatically starting without a ‘‘play’’ button being clicked by the user).

Average Session Duration

The average amount of time spent with a piece of static, non-video content.

Banner Ad

Standard or Rich Media online advertising. Can include images, flash animation and video.

Behavioural Targeting

The practice of using individuals’ web-browsing histories for targeting.  Interest, environments and online activity are tracked from past online activities, using cookies.


Bid amount ($) determines how effectively we can optimize your ad delivery. Your bid competes in an auction with other advertisers, who also want to reach the same target audience.

Black List

A blacklist is a list of IP addresses that are suspected to be sources of spam, or are suspected to be fraudulent and have been placed on an anti-spam database. Public blacklists are databases that are openly available, but companies often also have their own private black lists


Short for 'weblogs' this is a special kind of website for self-publishing, often done by the owner of the site (the "blogger"), but sometimes by a committee of authorised authors. 


An individual who generates content for blogs, either personal or professional. Some professional bloggers generate levels of esteem and prestige equivalent to that of journalists. 

Bonus Impressions

Additional ad impressions above the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.

Bot Traffic (Or Non-Human Traffic)

Bot Traffic consists of ad impressions made by bots rather than humans. Bots, or web robots, are software applications that perform simple tasks on the Internet. While they have some constructive uses, they are most often associated with fraudulent activities, such as mimicking a human's view of an ad

Bot, Crawler or Spider

A program that browses and indexes content on the internet. This data is then used to help search engines deliver relevant search results. 

Bounce Rate

Refers to the percentage of a given page's visitors who exit without taking an action on the page or website.

Brand Ambassador

A person who represents and promotes a brand or company. 

Brand Development Index

Brand performance (sales) in a given market relative to the share of the total population living in that market.

Brand Safe/Blocked %

Percentage of impressions that were displayed in brand safe environments.  Technology can be used to block ads appearing on webpages where its appearance might negatively impact the Advertiser's brand.

Brand Safety

A brand's exposure to an environment and/or context that will damage or be harmful to the brand.  This could be an ad pubished next to, beore, or within an unsafe environment such as religious extremism or CENSOREDography.

Not to be confused with 'Brand in-appropriateness/Brand un-suitability'.

Branded Content/Brand Entertainment

The merging of a brand (its assets, values, messaging and products) with a body of entertainment (TV show, web series, social media, music videos, etc.).

Branded link

In terms of anchor text, a branded link is a link in which contains to company brand or similar derivative in the anchor text. Example branded link for Search Candy would be "Search Candy", "SearchCandy" and ""

Branded Posts

Where a brand might make and label content and send through social networks.

Broadband Video Commercials

TV-like advertisements that may appear as in-page video commercials or before, during, and/or after a variety of content in a player environment including but not limited to, streaming video, animation, gaming, and music video content. Broadband video commercials may appear in live, archived, and downloadable streaming content.

Buy type

The method by which you pay for, target and measure ads in your campaigns: through dynamic auction bidding, fixed-price bidding, or reach and frequency buying.

Catch up TV (also known as Video on Demand)

Video content that is controlled, enabled, and consumed whenever a viewer wants after its official release date or original air date and time. VOD content can be found on set top boxes, OTT devices, mobile web, mobile apps, and video streaming services


Ways to organise content on a size, especially blogs. 

Category Development Index

Category performance (sales) in a given market relative to the share of the total population living in that market.

Checkout / Conversion

The number of times a checkout was completed on your website as a result of your ad.


In videos, the lower third or super.

Click Through URL

This is the web link that sit behinds the creative OR the action of clicking through on an ad


The number of times an Ad is clicked.  A click refers to the opportunity for a user to download another file by clicking on an advertisement, as recorded by the server. A click is also the result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or key word that links to the advertiser's intended website or another page / frame within the website.

Clicks to Play

The number of times a Fan on social has clicked on a video to play it as opposed to auto-plays which also counts towards Total Views.


Fans respond underneath social content posted by the Brand such as underneath a Facebook post.


Content generated by users in response to an inital publication, most notable blog posts. These are usually posted below the blog entry, and can often be vehicles for creating advanced levels of discussion that increase the lifespan of blog posts. Comments are also typically associated with news articles, videos, media-sharing sites, and Facebook posts. 

Completed rate

Represents the portion of viewers that watched an Ad to completion.  This is calculated by total 100% completed views divided by total impressions.

Connected TV

A television set that is connected to the Internet and is able to access a variety of web-based content.  A connected TV may have built in internet capability, eg a smart TV, or use an over the top device (OTT), eg streaming box, bluray device, gaming console.

Contextual targeting

A basic level of targeting by placing the Ad on sites or in relevant sections for the advertiser.  Allows your Ad to be seen in the “right place”, where a user may expect and want to see your Ad.

Conversion (also known as Action)

This is a completed activity that is defined as important to your client’s campaign and could include a land on a web page, start a quote, or watch a video for example

Conversion Rate

The average number of conversions per ad click, shown as a percentage. It is calculated by taking the number of conversions and dividing that figure by the number of total clicks that can be tracked to a conversion during the same time period. For example, 50 conversions from 1000 clicks; conversion rate would be 5% (50/1000).


A small piece of code placed on a user’s machine that identifies them when they return to a specific website or network, or complete a certain action on a site.


Cookies are a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing

Cost per Completed View

The price an advertisr pays everyt ime a video ad runs through to completion. Rather than paying for all impressions, some of which may have been stopped part-way, an advertiser only pays for ads that are viewed to completion (CPCV= Cost / Completed views) 

Cost per Fan

The cost of acquiring a new fan for a Facebook page through paid ads or earned media efforts.

Cost per Sale

The advertiser's cost to generate one sales transaction. If this is being used in conjunction with a media buy, a cookie can be offered on the content site and read on the advertiser's site after the successful completion of an online sale.

CPA (Cost per Action)

Cost of advertising based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad. 'Actions' include things such as a sales transaction, a customer acquisition or a click. 

CPA = Total COST/Acquisitions

CPC (Cost per Click)

Some trading models and search auctions charge only when a user clicks on the ad to go through to the advertiser site.  Calculated as total cost / number of clicks CPC = TOTAL COST / Number of Clicks 

CPCV (Cost per completed view)

The price an advertiser pays every time a video ad runs through to completion. Rather than paying for all impressions, some of which may have been stopped before completion, an advertiser only pays for ads that finished (CPCV = Cost ÷ Completed Views).

CPE (Cost per engagement)

The price an advertiser pays every time a user actually interacts or engages with the ad (as defined and agreed). Rather than paying for all impressions, an advertiser only pays for ads that a user interacted with (eg moused over a Light Box ad to expand) (CPE= Cost ÷ Engagement volume).

CPL (Cost per lead)

Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received. 

CPM (Cost per Thousand)

Cost per Thousand (Mille) – transaction metric based on the cost to deliver 1000 ad impressions.  CPM = Total Cost / Impressions x 1000

CPV (Cost per View)

A pricing model where the advertiser only pays for a video start. Typically sold at 1000 impressions.

CRO (Conversion Rate Optimisation)

A system for increasing the percentage of visitors to a website that convert into customers, or more generally, take any desired action on a webpage.

Cross screen measurement

Tracking and measurement of video metrics across Mobile/Tablet/Out-of-Home/TV/Connected TV/Desktop.

CTR (Click through Rate)

Click through Rate which is defined as total volume of clicks for that placement divided by total volume of impressions for that placement x 100. It’s an indication of how effective a placement is at generating a click.  CTR = Total CLICKS / Impressions x 100

Custom audience

A Custom Audience from a customer list is a type of audience you can create made up of your existing customer or database. You can target ads to the audience you've created on Facebook, Instagram, and Audience Network.


Customer Experience 

Dark / sponsor post

A page post created in Power Editor that will appear in News Feed but not on your Page. It allows you to create an ad for that post without it appearing on your Page's Timeline.  This can be useful for example for a special offer for a new travel insurance prospect that you don’t want existing policy holders to see.


Abbreviation for "Digital Audio Rapid Transfer". Method of distributing radio commercials via the technology of ISDN or On Ramp (broadband).

Abbreviation: DART

Data Compression

Technology for improving the transmission rates and/or Data compression decreasing the bandwidth requirements of digital TV services that entails the reduction of the digital data files through removing redundant information. The compression technology is fundamental for allowing service providers to squeeze multiple digital TV channels and other services on to a single carrier frequency that would permit only one analogue TV channel.

Data Fusion

Data fusion uses common variables to match individual respondents in one survey to those in another. This allows inferences to be made on a rational basis about aggregates of individuals. For example, ACNielsen’s Panorama data collects all information from a single source - with the exception of television and radio data which is ‘fused onto’ the single source data using the industry currency ratings data.

Data Management Platform

A data store that uses a persistent identifer to store data at a disaggregated level pertaining to campaign performance, client data and audience attributes 


Broadcasting of information and other data services via digital TV, often as a supplementary offering to enhance the appeal of digital TV channels.

Date and Time targeting

An option which restricts the advertising to only run at a time of day when it’s most likely to reach and engage the target audience.


Refers to a selected time zone on television.
Key dayparts are:
Peak (or Prime time): Sunday - Saturday 1800 – 2230
Off Peak: Any time outside of peak
Women’s Daytime: Monday – Friday 1100 – 1500 (can vary by station)
Fringe: Sunday – Saturday 1600-1700
Late Night: Sunday – Saturday 2230 – 2330

DCO (Dynamic Creative Optimisation)

A display ad technology that creates personalised ads based on data about the viewer at the moment of ad serving 

Deal ID

A unique number assigned to an automated ad buy that allows the buyer and seller to identify one another 


Is a term used in media to describe the composition of an audience in terms of characteristics such as age, sex, etc.

Destination Page

The page being linked to from another page.

Diary Method

A data collection method used for radio and solus television, whereby respondents record their own listening or viewing habits in a log book

Digital Audio Broadcasting

International transmission technical standard for digital radio.

Digital Broadcasting

A method of producing, broadcasting and receiving television signals using digital (computer) technology to convert sound and pictures into a series of digits in much the same way as a PC stores data. It allows the broadcast of widescreen, cinema quality pictures with surround sound. It produces clearer, sharper pictures without interference and ghosting. It also allows multiple images on the screen, as well as digital storage for playback or manipulation. It also enables the provision of a range of different types of services including data services.

Digital Signatures

Signatures for electronic documents. They establish identity and therefore can be used to establish legal responsibility and the complete authenticity of whatever they are affixed to -- in effect, creating a tamper-proof seal.

Digital Terrestrial Television

Digital TV broadcasted terrestrially over the air for reception by aerial antennae

Digital TV

General term for TV services that are transmitted into the (DTV) home digitally, where they are received either by a set-top box decoder, which converts them into analogue form for display on a conventional analogue TV set, or by an integrated digital TV receiver

Digital Versatile/Video Disc

Device for playing, but not recording digital video discs.

Digital Video Recorder

Devices that allow TV viewers to time shift, pause and fast forward (until real time) using hard-drive video storage.
See also PVR (personal video recorder).

Distress Space

Distress space is offered at a reduced rate when a magazine or newspaper is either not full, or when another advertiser cancels a booking just prior to the scheduled time of printing.

DMP (Data Management Platform)

A data store that uses a persistent identifier to store data at a disaggregated level pertaining to campaign performance, client data and audience attributes. 

Double Spotting

Refers to the practice of placing two, or more, commercials for a brand in a given program.

Double spotting is often used as a means of building high levels of frequency within a short period of time. This is particularly so when double spotting is used in combination with Media Gardens analysis.


When an ad is downloaded by a server to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested, but aborted or abandoned before actually being downloaded to the browser, and hence there would be no opportunity to see the ad by the user.


Refers to television scheduling and is when lower levels of weight is spread over a long period of time.

DSP (Demand Side Platform)

A technology platform that allows buyers of digital advertising inventory to manage multiple ad exchange and data exchange accounts through one interface.


The physical copy of the advertisement that is sent to each television or radio station.

Duplicated Audience

The number of individuals (or homes) exposed to more than one advertising message through a given media schedule.

Dynamic Ad

An online ad that is customised in real time based on the past behaviours of the person to which it is being displayed.


Electronic Direct Mail

Early General News

Generally the first section of the newspaper contained main news headlines

Earned Media

Media activity relating to a company or brand that is generated by external sources such as customers or journalists

Ebb & Flow

Ebb and flow refers to the movement in audience from station to station or program to program at a given point in time. Ebb and flow studies involve tracking the audience achieved by a program in the quarter-hour immediately before the point in question through to the quarter-hour immediately following. The first quarter-hour audience has three alternative flows:

  1. It can stay tuned to the program already selected.
  2. It can move to another program on another station or,
  3. It can switch off.

Similarly,the audience in the quarter-hour immediately after the point of time in question can be described as coming from the three sources:

  1. It can be the audience remaining tuned to the selected program,
  2. It can come to the program from another program on another station or,
  3. It could be new 'switch-on' audience.


An electronic version of a printed book,. 

Effective Frequency

The number of times the target audience needs to be exposed to a commercial in order for them to understand and remember the message. This information is used to evaluate in the planning process what the appropriate number of times an audience might need to see/hear/read the advertisement in order to generate the appropriate response.

Eg. First exposure might inspire a response of ‘What is it’, the second exposure might be "What is it about?" and the third exposure might generate a response of "I know that, so I will……"

Effective Reach

The number, or percentage of individuals reached at, or above the effective frequency level.

Electronic Program Guide

On-screen electronic guide to channel programme offerings and other services carried by a DTV platform


Multimedia correspondence over the internet.

Engagement Mapping

Attribution of credit for delivering a certain action online most commonly follows the last click wins methodology. For example, when a user clicks on a banner and makes a purchase, that sale would be attributed to the website from which they clicked through, regardless of what other advertising they saw prior to that action. Engagement mapping is a method for sharing the credit for delivering a sale or action between all advertising touch points, according to specific factors or weighting.

Engagement Rate

A metric by which analysts of social media performance would measure the success of posts or page using Likes, Comments, Shares. Often a percentage to show out of total fans or people who saw the post or page, how many have engaged with the content. Engagement rate is often subjective to the Client and its social objectives. This could be for example shares from fans to those who prioritise advocacy or clicks to play to those driving high Video View rates.

Exclusive Audience

Or 'Unduplicated Audience' is the number, or percentage, of a given target audience that is reached only by a nominated media vehicle (or television program) but not by competitive media vehicles. For example, the ABC may have a relatively high exclusive audience, i.e. people who will only watch the ABC and not the commercial networks. Exclusive audience studies are more relevant to radio and print media.


When an advertiser is given a guarantee that they will be the only advertiser in their product category appearing in a particular magazine, television program etc.

Experimental Activation

Brand activity that directly engages consumers and invites and encourages them to participate with the brand. 

External link

A link that points to a different website than the link is found on. For example a link from to 


Abbreviation for "Frequently Asked Questions"

First party data

First-party data is YOUR data. This can include data from behaviours, actions or interests demonstrated across your website(s); data you have in your CRM; subscription data; social data; or cross-platform data from mobile web or apps. EXAMPLE – your client’s data.


Stands for 'Frequency Modulation'. It is a broadcasting system, relatively free from static, in which the frequency of the transmitted wave is modulated or varied in accordance with the amplitude and pitch of the signal. FM broadcasts are generally of a higher quality than AM, and are in stereo, meaning that it is ideal for a music format station.


An area on a website (or an entire website) dedicated to user conversation through written comments and message boards, often related to customer support or fan engagement. 

Free to Air

Used to describe all television networks that consumers receive free of charge


The number of times a user is estimated to be exposed to an ad.  Managed as a frequency cap (setting the maximum number of times a user will be served an ad), or an average frequency. Calculated as total number of impressions / reach.

Frequency Capping

Restricting (capping) the number of times (frequency) a specific visitor to a website is shown a particular advertisement

Frequency Distribution

Displays how the cumulative audience for a schedule has built in percentage terms - once, twice, three times etc.

Fringe Time

In television refers to the evening hours that precede and follow prime time, usually 5.00-6.00pm and 10.30pm - 12.00 Midnight.

Full Page Colour

Used to describe full colour advertising messages in newspapers and magazines

Full Page Mono

Used to describe black and white advertising messages in newspapers and magazines


Extra pages that fold out in a magazine.

Geographic Analysis

Refers to the analysis of audience measurement data by geographic sub-regions.

GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)

A common format for image files, especially suitable for images containing large areas of the same colour. GIF format files of simple images are often smaller than the same file would be if storing in JPEG format, but GIF format does not store photographic images as well as JPEG.

GIVT - General Invalid Traffic

Traffic that comes from known non-human sources on publicly available IP lists.

Google Search Console

A platform created by Google for people to better manage how their websites are seen in the search engine results. 

Gross Media Cost

Total Media cost including agency commission and excluding additional agency service fees.

GRP (Gross Rating Points)

The sum of individual TARPs for a TVC campaign. GRPs indicate the total weight of a schedule or gross audience (i.e. including duplication).

Half Page Colour

A print advertisement half the size of one page of the publication.

Hard Core Audience

Is the audience that is (potentially) exposed to all (or some very high level of) appearances of a programme or commercial media schedule.


A symbol (#) placed directly in front of a word or words to tag a post on Twitter. It is often used to group tweets by popular categories of interest and to help users follow discussion topics. 

Heading Tags/Elements (H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6)

The heading element in HTML defines a structure for headings in a document. Starting with H1 as the most important heading, descending to H6, heading tags are a standard part of HTML. The H1 tag is the most important heading element on a web resource. Generally there should only be one H1 on a page, but it is not a major problem to use more than one if it helps to describe the content of a page ie, if there is more than one section on a page. 

Heavy User

Refers to that proportion of ‘all users’ of a specified product or brand who use more of the product or brand than other users. The term is usually used in triptile analysis where all users are ranked by weight of usage and the divided into three equal sized groups.


Generally refers to a period of non-activity between bursts or flights or advertising.

High Definition TV

High Definition TV - TV signals with at least twice the horizontal and vertical resolution of conventional broadcast TV signals, thereby giving a richer picture with less noticeable grain.


The total number of times any and all individual elements of a web page are downloaded to a browser (including text, pictures, buttons, bars etc).

Home Page

A web page used as the starting point for users to obtain information regarding products or services.

Homes Using Television’

HUT is the percentage of homes in a market where atleast one television set is switched on at a given time of day. That is, it measures total television usage across all stations.

Abbreviation: HUT


Hypertext markup language (HTML) refers to the text-based language which is used to create websites 

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)

The coding language used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web.


Known as “link” for short, is a word or phrase which is clickable and takes the visitor to another Web page. 

HyperText Transfer Protocol

The protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet.

IAB (Interactive Advertising Bureau)

Industry body representing online publishers.

ID Break

An advertisement in the form of editorial content, usually within print environments.


Also known as "frames", these HTML tag devices allow 2 or more websites to be display simultaneously on the same page. Facebook now allows companies to create customised tabs for its fan pages using iFrames, a process which developers find much easier than using the previous "FBML", or Facebook markup language. 


Total Impacts are the total number of advertising exposures estimated to have been received by the target audience within a given media schedule. Impacts allow for the fact that individuals are exposed to an advertising message with varying degrees of frequency.

Impression Multiplier

The Impression Multiplier is the factor used to determine how many impressions a Digital Out of Home (DOOH) screen gets - as several people are likely to be looking at a DOOH screen at any given moment, meaning that one play of an ad needs to be counted as several impressions.  Currently there is no standardised methodology to calculate the Impression Multiplier, with each SSP determining their own approach.  

Impression Share

The number of impressions delivered divided by the number of total eligible impressions.  Some brands like to use this as an indicator of market share, more accurate to use it as an indicator of your participation, relevance and bid strategy in auctions.


An instance of an ad being served on a particular web page and the presentation is tracked. 

In App

Made available (often a purchase) within a particular app or mobile device without the need to visit a seperate site. 

In-Banner Video

A form of video advertising that takes place outside of In-Stream Video content and includes Native Video, In-Feed Video, In-Article/Read Video, In-Banner Video, and Interstitial Video.


Ads or content that appear within the newsfeed or streams of a page, i.e. on Facebook, Twitter, Buzzfeed, etc

In-view %

Ad Ad with appears in a viewable space on the users screen.  Percentage of impressions that met the agreed viewability standards.


A percentage which relates numbers to a given base. It is used to demonstrate quickly what is average (index = 100), above average (index > 100), or below average (index 100) in terms of concentrations of people, ratings, sales data etc. within predefined categories. Indices are usually rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.


A person who has the power to influence many people, through social media or traditional media. A person whose livelihood revolves around their online presence or being famous in some way. 


Visual representation of information or data.

Inside Front Cover

The advertising that appears on the first left hand page of a magazine.

Integrated Services Digital Network

A way to move more data over existing phone lines. Used for sending print/radio ads from production departments/companies to the media.


The inclusion of a brand (its assets, values, messaging and products) into an existing property like a TV show, magazine, radio show, etc.


Refers to native advertising or social media, the comments, likes or shares that a piece of content receives.

Interactive Video

A type of digital video creative that can take user input to perform some enhanced actions through elements integrated above and beyond the standard video playback controls (i.e., play, pause, rewind, and mute). These interactions can include varied calls-to-actions, forms, polls/surveys, links, chapter menus and hot-spots that may affect story progression of the video content and/or drill down on specific parts of the content itself. The goal of the creative is to give the user various options to engage with the message beyond viewing the video

Internal Links

An internal link is a link that points to a resource found on the same website that the link is found on. For example a link from to


Advertising information, usually a web page, which is downloaded and displayed to users while they wait for other web based material to download. It also refers to television advertising placed between programmes rather than within programmes, as occurs on SBS and the Subscription TV movie channels that take advertising.

Invalid Traffic

Intentionally fraudulent traffic


The aggregate number of opportunities for a publisher / media owner to display advertisements to visitors 

IP address

 This series of numbers and periods represents the unique numeric address for each Internet user

ISP (Internet Service Provider)

ISPs can provide connectivity to the Internet, host Web Pages for users, or be "carriage service providers" who provide access to the Internet.

Issue Date

The date printed on the cover of a magazine. This is also referred to as the 'Cover Date'. See also 'On-Sale Date'.

ITD (Independent Trading Deck)

Third party company that license and supports DSP technology to act as a trading desk for Advertisers/Agencies 

IVT % (Invalid Traffic %)

Percentage of fraudulent (non human) traffic.  Also referred to as Ad Fraud %.

Journalistic Content

Such as news, sports or entertainment from publishing platforms such as News, Fairfax or BBC - considered premium content

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)

It is most commonly mentioned as a format for image files. JPEG format is preferred to the GIF format for photographic images as opposed to line art or simple logo art.

Junior Page Colour

Describing a specific ad space size in colour for magazines, the size varies by title

Key word targeting

The ability to serve Ads, alongside relevant content, based on users search terms.

Key words

The search terms you bid on to show your ads against

Keyword Volume

Google's estimated monthly searches for a particular keyword in a particular country. Helps to prioritise keywords to target. 

Landing Page

A stand-alone Web page that a user “lands” on, commonly after visiting a paid search-engine listing or following a link in an email newsletter

Lead Generation

Fees advertisers pay to Internet advertising companies that refer qualified purchase inquiries (e.g., auto dealers which pay a fee in exchange for receiving a qualified purchase inquiry online) or provide consumer information (demographic, contact, and behavioral) where the consumer opts into being contacted by a marketer (email, postal, telephone, fax). These processes are priced on a performance basis (e.g., cost-per-action, -lead or -inquiry), and can include user applications (e.g., for a credit card), surveys, contests (e.g., sweepstakes) or registrations.


One of the most common online banner formats, the leaderboard measures 728x90 pixels.


Is a hyper-link that when clicked will take a user from one resource or area of a page to another.

Link clicks

The number of clicks on links appearing on your ad or Page that direct people to other content/sites as a result of your ad.


The definition of who is a listener is based on a ‘rule of dominance’. That is, if a person spends 8 minutes or more of a specified quarter-hour tuned to a particular radio station they are defined as a listener to that station for that entire quarter-hour.


A listing is a website’s presence in a search engine or directory, and is not necessarily indicative of its search-engine positioning

Live Read

Usually occurs on radio. An announcer either reads or ad-libs a piece of information about your product. Generally a live read is based on a script provided by the creative agency.


Extra cost ($ or %) that you pay for a premium position such as Outside Back Cover, Inside Front Cover etc.

Location targeting

Is tailored and relevant messages based on a user’s location.  The additional benefit is reduction of impression wastage and media costs.  Possible due to the plethora of data available and the importance of the mobile device to our audience.

Long form

Long form video is generally regarded as single content pieces lasting more than 10 minutes, usually TV shows, and series and documentary type videos. If the content is ad supported, it typically contains breaks (mid-roll).

Long-tail Ad

Aggregated inventory from less popular or well-known publisher sources. Programmatic enables advertisers to combine disparate sources of long-tail inventory to reach highly targeted niche audiences

Look-a-like targeting

Allows you to find people who are similar to your customers or prospects by building a look a like audience.


Usually refers to a free commercial given by a television station in lieu of a commercial incorrectly telecast, or not telecast at all, due to the fault of the station.

Market Profile

Description of the people/households as likely buyers of a product. It usually includes such things as the geographic location of the market and the demographic description of the likely purchasers, or of the market as a whole.

Market Share

A company or brand’s share of the total industry or category sales volume (or value).

Max CPC / Bid

For CPC bidding campaigns, you set a maximum cost-per-click bid, the highest amount that you're willing to pay for a click on your ad.  Your max CPC is the most that you'll typically be charged for a click, but often less. The final amount that you're charged for a click is called your actual CPC. 

Media Consumption

Is a phrase referring to an individual’s usage or consumption of specified media vehicles.

Media Share

The share of advertising against a competitive set e.g. Channel 9's share versus the rest of the free to air TV market.

Media Volume

The volume of media expenditure or dollar commitment an agency makes to media owners.


An image, video, text ect., typically humorous that is copied and spread rapidly. Often captioned photos. 


Fans send the Brand a private message on social that would go to Inbox and not seen by other fans.

Meta Keywords

A short list of words that describe the content of a webpage. These aren't used by search engines. 

Metadata description

A snippet of text in a web page's code that describes the context of the page, and is used as the website's description in a search engine results page. E.g. the title tags are clickable blue links in search results and the black text is often the meta description of the page. 

Metro TV Market

Any of the five Metropolitan TV markets - Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth.

MFA (Media Federation Of Australia)

The association representing media agencies.

Micro influencers

Everyday people with a decent sized following (ie less than 10,000), who can influence people through their social media channel. As opposed to a Mega-influencer ie Kim Kardashian. 

Micro Site

Individual web page meant to function as a discrete entity within an existing website. 


A microblog is a social media utility where users can share short status updates and information. The most famous example is Twitter, which combines aspects of blogs (personalised Web posting) with aspects of social networking sites (making and tracking connectings, or "friends"). 


Term for black and white printing. Abbreviation of the word 'monochrome'.

Abbreviation: Mono

Motion Picture Expert Group

A widespread international family of compression standards for digital video, of which MPEG 1 and MPEG 2 are the most significant for TV broadcasting. The technically superior MPEG 2 uses DCT (discrete cosine transform) compression

MPA (Magazine Publishers of Australia)

The association representing magazine publishers.

MREC (Medium Rectangle)

Medium Rectangle, or Mrec for short, is a common online banner format measuring 300x250 pixels.


Broadcasting of several programmes at the same time on a digital TV channel.

Native Advertising

A form of online advertising that matches the form and function of the platform on which it appears. For example,an article written by an advertiser to promote their product,but using the same form as an article written by the editorial staff. The word "native" refers to the content's coherence with other media on the platform.

Native Content

Type of advertising, mostly online, that matches the form and function of the platform upon which it appears. 

Nett Media Cost

Total media cost excluding agency commissions and service fees.

Nett Reach

The number of different individuals exposed to an advertising message at least once within a given period of time. Nett reach is usually expressed as a percentage. A Net Reach figure is developed by the planner to help identify the level of reach that is needed to generate the desired response to the advertising. You may hear people refer to this as 75@ 1+ or 50@ 1+

Eg. A combination of placing a 30 second commercials in 10 different television programs across the week might deliver a reach of 60% to Women 18-39 (hypothetical example only). You may have a total campaign that is aimed to deliver an 85% reach to your target audience.


Is the constantly updating list of stories in the middle of your home page. News Feed includes status updates, photos, videos, links, app activity and likes from people, Pages and groups that you follow on Facebook. 

Newspaper Format

Refers to the physical size of the newspaper i.e.

  • Tabloid (e.g. Daily Telegraph)
  • Broadsheet (e.g. Sydney Morning Herald)

Occupational Group

A range of variable that categorise different occupation groups.

On Sale Date

The date a publication actually goes on sale (hits the news stands). Also see 'Issue Date'.

Open Exchange or Open Market Place

A biddable open market system in which any seller can make digital inventory available for purchase by any buyer

Organic Listings

Also known as “natural” listings, these are search-engine results that have not been purchased

Organic Post Reach

The number of unique people who saw a Post in News Feed or on a Page’s timeline on Facebook.

Organic search

Search engines have results that consist of paid ads and unpaid listings. The unpaid / algorithmic listings are called the organic search results. Organic search results are organized by relevancy, which is largely determined based on page content, usage data, and historical domain and trust related data.

OTS (Opportunities To See)

An opportunity for a consumer to see, read or hear a message.

Outbound Link

Any link on a webpage that will direct you to a different webpage.

Outside Back Cover

The advertising/content that appears on the very last page of a magazine.

Over the Page

This ad format is displayed over the top of a web page’s content. Usually these ads are highly animated and will only display for a few seconds. There is no standard size for an OTP with each publisher determining the specific criteria for their own sites.

Over the Page (OTP)

Over the page (OTP) is an ad unit format which is served over the publisher webpage and is displayed for about 5 or 10 seconds.  After that, the initial ad disappears and is replaced on the webpage by a more traditional ad unit.


OzTAM television ratings from the previous night. Hard-copy summary reports, quarter-hour data and elemental data for Metro and Regional is released at 8:30am daily. Subscription TV data is released at 9:30am.

Owned Media

Refers to assets that are created and owned by a company


OzTAM owns the copyright to the Metropolitan television data and to the National Subscription TV data. It sub-contracts the data collection and processing to ATR. OzTAM is owned by the Seven, Nine and Ten networks.

Page Rank

A method of measuring the popularity of a webpage 

Page Views

The number of times a particular web page is downloaded to a browser. Used as an indicator of a site’s volume of traffic.

Paid Media

Media activity purchased by advertiser/agency

Paid Post Reach

Number of unique people an advertised Page Post was served to.


Representative survey sample from which data is collected over time. Panels may be short term and employ discrete one-off samples (e.g. some diary surveys) or long term with samples that change over time according to the number of homes that leave the panel and are replaced by new homes.

Partner categories

Include data from trusted data partners. The data from these partners allows you to target people based on certain attributes like their income and whether or not they're a homeowner. You may also be able to target people based on things they do off of Facebook, like purchasing a new truck.

Pass On

Also known as ‘Pass Along’ readership. It refers to readership of a given publication by persons other than the original purchaser. Also called secondary (and tertiary) readership

Pay TV

Subscription based television available via cable or satellite depending on market and supplier.


A paid-search system nearly identical to (and essentially synonymous with) pay-per-click


Penetration is used in media to describe the coverage of a particular medium. In marketing terms it relates to the proportion of people who use or buy a product.

People Meter

An electronic device for measuring television viewing. It consists of three components (i) a frequency matching device installed on every television, VCR and cable decoder box to measure the signal and time of watching (ii) an eight-button remote control unit which communicated via infra-red to the frequency matching device, via which viewers log-on and register their viewing (iii) a microprocessor to store and transmit the raw data back to ATR’s central processing ofiice.

Performance Pricing Model

An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads. See CPA, CPC, CPL, CPO, CPS, CPT.

Personal Video Recorder

A device, also called Digital video recorder, which uses a hard drive to record and store digital video content. An important feature of the PVR is that it enables viewers to pause, fast-forward and rewind live programmes. Some of the appliances also have the capability to suggest programmes for users by recognising their viewing behaviour. Companies offering this technology include BSkyB and TiVo


Code that enables advertisers to track certain actions on their site, such as a sale. This also facilitates attribution of the action back to the ad/website that delivered that user to the site.

PMP (A Private Marketplace)

An invitation only RTB auction where one publisher or a select number of publishers invite a select number of buyers to bid on its inventory


A series of audio or video content which can be downloaded and listened to/viewed offline (of a particular episode in that series, e.g. podcast #6 of The Sporkful). Podcasts are sometimes created to provide stand-alone copies of existing radio or television programming but they may also consist of entirely unique content intended for devoted Web-based subscribers. 

Pop Up Ad

An ad that appears in a separate window on top of content already on-screen.


A joint ventures between big local media players, global sites and publishers who own multiple sites.


An item of content published online, typically on a blog, social website or app. 

Potential Audience

An advertisement in the form of editorial content, usually within print environments.

Eg. If the total population for Women 18-39 is 901,000, the potential audience is also 901,

* Can be also be sub-classified by (i) demography - age, sex, income etc (ii) psychography - lifestyle, culture, social class, (iii) geography - place of residence etc

Power Editor

Facebook advertising tool designed for larger advertisers who need to create lots of ads at once and have precise control of their campaigns.

PPC (pay per click)

Paid search advertising, most common transaction mechanic, advertisers only pay the search engine when a user clicks on the ad to go to your site


Premium inventory is ad space on a site that a publisher has deemed higher-quality, and subsequently attempts to sell at a higher price.

Primary Readership

The readership of a given publication by the people who purchased the publication. 

Prime Time

Refers to the time when the largest numbers of people consume electronic media. For example: television is 6.00pm-10.30pm (also called Zone 1 of the ratecard), radio is 5.30am-9.00am.

Private Exchange

A biddable environment in which a publisher can limit access to inventory to certain advertisers with established pricing rules 

Product Placement

Where a brand pays to have their product shown in the content of a program


Shows the proportion of a medium’s total readership, viewers or listeners that a specific target audience comprises. This can then be compared to the profile of other titles/stations/programmes. The higher the proportion, the more attuned your target audience is likely to be to that publication/station/programm.

For example, in December 1998, Women’s Weekly, Cosmopolitan and Dolly all had similar Women 14-24 readerships. However, Women 14-24 represented 12%, 48% and 71% respectively of each magazine’s total readership, emphasising Dolly’s strength with Women 14-24.

Profiles can also be done of product consumption. For example, you could profile the age distribution of premium beer drinkers and compare it to the population’s age distribution. This is often best shown as a line graph of the index between the product profile and the population profile, where indices greater than 100 show a greater propensity to consume the product.

Program Syndication

Programming distributed to a group of independent regional/local TV stations which may broadcast as a network transmission or broadcast at different times on different stations, which may or may not belong to a single network group.


Automated buying and selling of inventory in real time, using technology and data

Programmatic Direct

A programmatic buying option between a publisher and advertiser, agency or platform


Short commercial announcements on television of upcoming programs.


Is a term that describes people’s psychological (as distinct from physical) characteristics. Psychographics identify personality characteristics and attitudes that affect a person’s lifestyle and purchasing behaviour.

Publisher’s Claim

Used in lieu of audited circulation data.

PULL Communication

Communication that gives consumers the opportunity to be pulled into a brand experience ie blog where a brand is integrated into a segment. 


Refers to a commercial message or station announcement that appears as a continuous stream of type super-imposed over live action. Pull-throughs usually appear at the bottom of the TV screen.


Is a flighting technique that calls for a continuous base of advertising support augmented by intermittent bursts of heavy pressure.

PUSH communication

Communication that is pushed out to consumers, tends to be paid communication. 

Qualitative Data

Qualitative research is concerned with understanding the processes that underlie various behavioural patterns.   ‘Qualitative’ is primarily concerned with ‘Why’.

Quality Score

Search Engine’s estimate of the value of your ad, based on click through rate, ad relevance and the landing page experience (landing page experience includes relevance of content to the search query, and other factors such as site load speed, mobile optimisation etc).  The higher your quality score, the better your ad will perform and the lower your CPC   

Quantitative Data

Quantitative research is primarily concerned with the tabulation or numeric relevance of various kinds of behaviour.

Quintile Analysis

Is used to examine frequency of (media or product consumption) activity. Viewers, listeners, readers or consumers of a particular product etc. are ranked according to their usage and then divided into five equal groups, or quintiles, ranging from the heaviest to the lightest in media exposure, or product consumption.


Is the listing of data in either ascending or descending order, eg; programme rankings by rating, CPM or Relevance Index.


Refers to the price that you pay for an advertisement e.g.

Print: Rates are based on size and colour.
Television: Different rates apply for commercial duration, programme and market.
Radio: Rates are generally based on session placement and commercial duration.


The percentage of the potential audience that is viewing a particular station or programme at a particular time. See also TARP.


The process of exposing Ads to an audience which has already been exposed to a message, offer or advertiser’s website.  It’s an opportunity to target users who have visited but not converted on what they have previously browsed.


The number of individual users your ad was shown to.

Readers Per Copy

Equals total readership divided by circulation.


The average number of people that read an issue of a newspaper or magazine title. As this data gives more information about the type of consumer that reads a title, this assists in the planning process also to identify the performance of each title relative to the audience. These figures are then used to benchmark magazines.

Eg. Over the 12 month period to September 2008, on an average per issue the Australian Women’s Weekly was read by 2,234,000 people.


Compensation awarded to media agencies by media owners for placing media buys with them, calculated and rewared retrospectively.  Rebates may be in the form of cash or value.


In marketing or audience research refers to the concept of a respondent being able to remember a particular event, advertisement or experience. Recall can be aided or unaided.


Is the name given to a method of audience research, usually relating to newspaper and magazines, which attempts to measure respondents' readership of specific publications by asking questions like... 'when did you last read an issue of...?'

Recognition Method

Is a research technique to determine the extent of a respondent's ability to remember an advertisement, a publication or a program with the aid of a cue offered by the interviewer.

Regional TV Markets

Also referred to as ‘Aggregated’ and ‘Sub-Markets’. An aggregated market is served by more than one free-to-air commercial station. Aggregated markets can be further split into component sub-markets, which are defined by broadcasting signals.

Regional markets can be bought by each aggregated market as a whole, or by individual sub-markets. We are able to run different commercials in each sub-market even if we buy the airtime at an aggregated market level.

Relevance score

A rating of 1 to 10 based on how your audience is responding to your ad. This score is calculated after your ad receives more than 500 impressions.  Facebook considers how relevant an ad is when determining which ads to show. When your ad is relevant to your audience, its relevance score is higher and it is more likely to be served than other ads targeting the same audience. As a result, you pay less to reach your audience.

Remnant Inventory

A publisher’s non-premium inventory, which is usually sold at a discounted rate by a third party via non-guaranteed programmatic buys.

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